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July 28, 1920

On this date Francisco Villa laid down his arms after signing an agreement with President Adolfo de la Huerta, returning to private life with a bodyguard of 50 men, retaining his military status and the Canutillo hacienda.

July 27, 1529

On this date Emperor Carlos V decreed to Hernán Cortés all the land presently occupied by the National Palace in Mexico City.

July 25, 1822

On this date Iturbide is named the first Emperor of Mexico.

July 24, 1893

On this date Mexico renounced its rights over the territory of Belize.

July 23, 1859

On this date President Juárez decreed laws to take over control of civil marriages, cemeteries, suppression of religious communities and tolerance of cults, all previously under the control of the church.

July 22, 1894

On this date in Oaxaca, María Sabina Magdalena García, healer and shaman of the indigenous Mazateca, was born. She became renowned for her curative uses of hallucinogenic mushrooms for which she was visited by the Rolling Stones, Beatles, Jim Morrison and Bob Dylan.

July 21, 1821

On this date Juan de O´Donojú, the last Viceroy of New Spain, signed the Córdoba Treaty with Iturbide recognizing the independence of Mexico.

July 18, 1847

On this date the Caciques Mayas of Yucatan began a civil war against whites, mestizos and Indians which became known as the “Guerra de Castas.”

July 16, 1944

On this date Colonel Antonio Cárdenas Rodríguez ordered Flight Squad 201 to participate in the Second World War in the Pacific. The squad trained in the United States and entered the war against the Japanese on April 30, 1945.

July 15, 1914

On this date the usurper Victoriano Huerta was defeated and renounced the Presidency of the Republic.

July 14, 1789

On this date the French Revolution began with the storming of the Bastille.

July 13, 1854

On this date Sonora military commander General José María Yánez ousted French Count Rausset de Boulbon from the port of Guaymas. Rausset de Boulbon had arrived from San Francisco to attempt to establish an independent Sonora State.

July 7, 1863

On this date an “Assembly of Notables” formed by conservative Mexicans and Catholic church members decided to offer Maximiliano de Habsurgo, Prince of Austria, the throne of Mexico.

July 9, 2011

On this date singer Facundo Cabral was murdered in Guatemala. The world lost a man who preached freedom, peace and justice.

July 4, 1815

On this date Josefa Ortíz de Domínguez was apprehended by the army for participation in the independence movement.