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July 23, 1958

On this date the American submarine “Nautilus,” the first nuclear propelled submarine in the world, left Pearl Harbour to become the first submersible to navigate below the ice of the North Pole which it accomplished on August 3.

July 18, 1872

On this date Benito Juárez died in Mexico City and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada assumed the position of interim President.

July 17, 1959

On this date Mary Leakey discovered at the mouth of the Olduvai in Tanzania a portion of a head of the species known as Parathropus Boisei, thought to be the species between gorillas and humans 1.75 million years ago.

July 16, 1945

On this date the first nuclear bomb was set off in the desert of Los Alamos in the United States.

July 15, 1867

On this date President Benito Juárez entered Mexico City to install the government after the triumph of the Republic over the French invasion and reign of Maximiliano.

July 14, 1824

On this date Agustín de Iturbide (self-proclaimed Emperor of Mexico) who was declared a traitor, disembarked in Sota La Marina. He had come from Europe where he had been exiled with his family to try to start a civil war, but he was apprehended by Juan José de la Garza and shot by firing squad five days later.

July 12, 1530

On this date the New Spain government issued a decree prohibiting indigenous people from owning and using horses which they considered can only be used for military purposes.

July 10, 1820

On this date the Spanish Inquisition tribunal in Mexico closed permanently.

July 9, 1894

On this date the Mexican composer Juventino Rosas, author of “Sobre las Olas” died in Surgidero de Batabanó, Cuba. He was 26 years old.

July 8, 1969

On this date the first contingent of American soldiers left Vietnam.

July 7, 1505

On this date the priest Martin Luther entered the los Agustinos de Santa Maria convent with the idea of becoming a priest.

July 5, 1878

On this date at Rancho de Río Grande close to San Juan del Río, Durango, Jose Doroteo Arango Arámbula, better known as Pancho Villa, was born.

July 2, 1915

On this date General Porfirio Díaz, president of Mexico for over 30 years, died in Paris.

July 1, 1823

On this date Nicaragua and Guatemala separated from Mexico when the countries did not agree with the proclamation of Iturbide as emperor of Mexico and payment of taxes.

June 30, 1520

On this date the Aztecas defeated the 1300 Spanish troops of Tenochtitlán during which 600 of them perished along with 2,000 allied Indios and 45 horses.